11th international course on semi-rigid and flexible

Calculation of structural course thickness is the primary task in pavement design.

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It will directly influence the mechanical properties, service life and the cost of pavement structure. Using BISAR3 of SHELL design method, the impacts of structural course thickness on the mechanical properties and service life of heavy load semi-rigid asphalt pavement structure were analyzed systematically.

And the influencing laws of the thickness of surface course, base course and sub-base course on heavy load semi-rigid asphalt pavement service life were also discussed. According to the results of sensitivity analysis of structural course thickness and axle loads, a prediction model of service life of heavy load semi-rigid asphalt pavement was proposed. These achievements can contribute to determine the rational structural course thickness of semi-rigid asphalt pavement and ensure the service life of pavement consistent with the cost.

Request Permissions. Sadeghi and M. International Journal of Transportation Engineering, November pp. DOI: Geotechnical Special Publication No. Specification for Design of Highway Asphalt Pavement.

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Paper Titles. Article Preview. Abstract: Calculation of structural course thickness is the primary task in pavement design. Add to Cart. Advanced Materials Research Volumes Edited by:. Cite this paper.Semi-rigid coaxial cable has a solid outer conductor and is manufactured by drawing seamless tubing over the insulating material and center conductor. Typical outer conductors are aluminum or copper, either of which may be tin-plated. The center conductor is usually solid silver placed copper, which has the advantage of being non-magnetic with loss.

Silver plated, copper clad steel center conductor is also available. Figure 9 — Shielding Effectiveness Click to enlarge.

A typical flexible coaxial cable has an outer conductor made of fine silver-plated copper wires braided over the insulation material. Other outer conductors use wide silver-plated copper strips braided in a basket weave configuration, or hundred of silver-plated copper wires running parallel to one another in a long spiral.

Stranded, flexible center conductors are common in flexible cable. Coaxial cables with stranded center conductor and braided outer conductors are intended for use in applications where the cable must flex repeatedly while in service, but will exhibit higher attenuation as compared to cables with solid center conductors. Conformable cable is an alternative to semi-rigid or flexible cable. These cables have a center conductor of various types of metallic braid.

Standard semi-rigid connectors can be used with conformable cable, and it will retain its shape once bent. Download pdf File. The additional strength and corrosion resistance of these assemblies is a definite advantage in extreme mechanical or atmospheric environments.

11th international course on semi-rigid and flexible

The stainless steel advantage is is clear. SSI constructs stainless steel cable by drawing a stainless steel jacket over a thin copper outer conductor. The stainless steel jacket give the cable.

SSI offers stainless steel cable in. Inner conductor substitution of steel in place of copper is also available.

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The welded cable connector joint dramatically improves performance at cryogenic temperatures below 80 degrees K. Stresses that are not rejected in a copper assembly are absorbed in the metal as cold working work hardeningfatigue, and eventual failure of either the copper jacket or the tin-lead solder joint. A stainless steel assembly will experience must less fatigue and failure than a non-ferrous jacketed cable during the common stresses of installation, vibrations, and shock. Mechanical performance conditions can be difficult to characterize for coaxial cables.

The stresses they are subjected to are the result of configuration, tolerances, and dynamic conditions. Many times a cable will meet MIL or industry standards but fail in the system. SSI has performed extensive testing which clearly shows stainless steel cable assemblies as the best choice for mechanical performance.

We back all of our stainless steel coaxial cable assemblies with a five-year warranty. We have never had a return! The stainless steel jacket give the cable Superior mechanical strength Shielding Corrosion resistance Copper outer conductor provides optimum conductivity SSI offers stainless steel cable in. Many times stronger than the solder joints of other semi-rigid cable assemblies GTAW Fusion weld yields a connector joint that is stronger than the original metals being joined Torque and tensile strengths are enhanced such that joint failures are virtually eliminate The welded cable connector joint dramatically improves performance at cryogenic temperatures below 80 degrees K.Buried pipelines for the conveyance of potable water and sanitary sewers form the bedrock of our civilization.

The very basic services that we take for granted, such as a running faucet with clean drinking water and the ability of our wastewater to be transported away from our homes and businesses for treatment and release into the environment, are possible because of the vast network of buried pipes that lie hidden beneath roads and the concrete jungles that define the large urban centers that are our cities. These intricate networks consist of various types of pipe materials that range from metals to concrete to plastics to composites.

The latter can only be ensured through a thorough understanding of and designing for the loads to which a buried pipe will be exposed, its response to the loading, and the interaction mechanism between the pipe and surrounding soils. While an understanding of pipe-soil interaction is important for the sound structural design of pipelines, it should be noted that the concern for soil pressure on a pipe is limited to empty pipe or gravity flow pipelines where the conduit never flows full.

In municipal pressure piping systems, the internal pressure is typically much greater than soil pressure on the pipe; internal pressure essentially supports the soil load when the line is placed into service. The story of the formal study of buried pipe structures in North America begins in Ames, Iowa, at the turn of the 20th Century, when Dr. Research was also necessary as thousands of small wooden bridges were being replaced by concrete and clay pipes placed in stream beds underneath roadway embankments.

It was necessary to design them properly so that they would not fail. Buried pipe design, then, was inextricably connected to the development of highway systems in the United States. Marston was the first Chairman of the federal Highway Research Board. Our knowledge of pipe-soil interaction, as well as the development of new pipe materials and the improvement of traditional ones, has grown by leaps and bounds since those early days, leading to a multi-billion dollar global pipe materials industry.

Another relatively new construction method in buried pipeline construction and rehabilitation is the advent of trenchless technology. But a tremendous amount of research in the last two decades now provides design engineers and contractors with an understanding of the pipe-soil mechanics of pipelines built by methods other than traditional open-trench methods. Thus was defined the Marston Theory of Loads on buried conduits.

This became, in part, the very foundation on which much of the later work around the world on earth loading technology of buried pipes was based.

Spangler would later become chairman of the Culvert Committee of the federal Transportation Research Board.

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In later years, other significant contributions came from A. Howard, J. Duncan, J. Hartley, F. Heger, T. McGrath, M. Zarghamee, and others that now enable the external load design of rigid and flexible pipes to be an even more exact science.

The basic concept of the Marston Load Theory is that the load on a buried pipe, because of the weight of the column of soil, or central prism, directly above the pipe, is modified by the response of the pipe and the relative movement of the side columns of soil, or external prisms adjacent to the pipe, between the pipe and the trench walls on either sideto the central prism. The shearing stresses or friction forces that develop due to the differential settlement of the external prisms and the central prism are additive to the load of the central prism alone.

Pipes that behave in this manner are referred to as Rigid Pipes. Generally, rigid pipes start showing signs of structural distress before being vertically deflected 2 percent.

Rigid pipes include reinforced non-cylinder concrete, reinforced concrete cylinder, prestressed concrete cylinder, vitrified clay, polymer concrete, cast iron, asbestos cement and cast-in-place pipes. On the other hand, if a pipe is more compressible than the external soil columns, without any structural damage caused to the pipe as a result of its vertical deflection, allowing the central prism to settle more in relation to the external prisms, the actual load on the pipe is less than the load of the central prism due to the direction in which the shearing stresses or friction forces develop as a result of the differential settlement of the central prism in relation to the external prisms.

Pipes that display this behavior when buried are referred to as Flexible Pipes. Use of the prism load is conservative because installers do not compact soil against the pipe.Special Book Collections. All Rights Reserved. Registration Log In. Engineering Research. Applied Mechanics and Materials. Advances in Science and Technology. International Journal of Engineering Research in Africa. Advanced Engineering Forum. Journal of Biomimetics, Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering.

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11th international course on semi-rigid and flexible

Nano Hybrids and Composites. Building Materials.The R programming language is used for data analysis, data manipulation, graphics, statistical computing and statistical analysis. In short, R helps you analyze data sets beyond basic Excel file analysis.

The R programming language and development environment are open source and have grown in popularity since its conception in the early 90s by Ross Ihaka and Robert Gentleman at the University of Auckland, New Zealand.

COMPARISON OF FATIGUE CRITERIA FOR FLEXIBLE AND SEMI-RIGID PAVEMENTS

The R Development Core Team is a community of developers engaged in development and support of the R project from the R Foundation - a not for profit organization providing support for R and other innovations in statistical computing.

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Lesson 44 Define Diaphragms(Flexible or Semi Rigid)

Some of the deeper level learnings in R programming tutorial include R source code and R functions, R studio, R data types, command lines and command prompts, time-series analysis, linear regression and logistic regression, data frames, R objects, basic data, CRAN and Fortran code, assignment operators, read.

There's lots to learning R and statistics, but an R tutorial on edX can help you master these concepts. R programming skills are listed as a job requirement on thousands of jobs in the fields of statistics and data analysis. Adding R coding language skills to your CV will help you in any one of these data specializations requiring mastery of statistical techniques. Take an introductory course and add experience with this popular programming language to your resume.

Get started coding with statistical software today! Real college courses from Harvard, MIT, and more of the world's leading universities. Get started for free. Details about Data Science from HarvardX. More courses and programs in r programming. Topics related to R programming. Browse subjects. Overview What is R programming? Online courses in R programming and R tutorials. Jobs in R programming.

Expand your skillset with R programming for data science. Whether you are looking to accelerate your career, earn a degree, or learn something for personal reasons, edX has the courses for you. Propelling Drive your career forward with university-backed credit programs and verified certificates. Convenient Study and demonstrate knowledge on your schedule. Flexible Try a course before you pay.The present invention relates to packaging made of a semi-rigid material, such as cardboard or corrugated cardboard, equipped with an internal bag or "bag" made of a flexible material, in particular plastic, intended to receive the packaged products.

Packaging of this type is frequently used in hospitals to dispose of hospital waste and, when the bags of packaging are full, they are evacuated to a storage place and then, generally, incinerated. Given the nature of the products thus packaged, which are dirty, contaminated and often impregnated with chemical or pharmaceutical products, great care is generally taken in handling the packaging used and, in many hospitals, it is customary to close with a link the plastic bag, when it is full.

It is moreover likely that, in the relatively near future, this measure will be made compulsory and will be the subject of legal or regulatory provisions. It is therefore desirable, for users, to be able to have a packaging not only equipped with an internal bag, but in which is also provided a link for closing this bag, after filling thereof.

It is however impractical to use for this purpose an independent link or removably fixed on the packaging or on the plastic bag, because it may separate from it and be interposed between the full bag and the body packaging, or to be lost during handling.

The present invention aims to remedy this drawback by proposing a packaging of the type which has just been mentioned, but in which the closure link of the plastic bag is integral with the packaging of cardboard or corrugated cardboard, therefore does not risk accidentally detach from it and is not separated by the user at the time of use, that is to say when it is necessary to close the plastic bag. To this end, the subject of the invention is a packaging made of a semi-rigid material such as cardboard or corrugated cardboard, equipped with an internal bag made of a flexible material, in particular plastic, intended to receive the packaged products, and of a link capable of closing the flexible bag, this packaging being characterized in that the link forms an integral part of the packaging and consists of a detachable tape incorporated in an external sheet of paper or cover sheet of the carton or the carton corrugated from part of the packaging.

Such tapes are well known in the art under the name of tear tapes, and they are usually incorporated into the cardboard or corrugated cardboard of a packaging panel, outside of this, to allow tear it and thus access the conditioned products.

In the context of the present invention, the tape is not intended to tear the part of the packaging of which it is integral, but to be separated therefrom. It can therefore be arranged both on the internal face and on the external face of a packaging panel, in an absolutely arbitrary position, since it is not intended to open this packaging. Advantageously, at least one end of the ribbon can be released from the panel of which it is integral, in order to facilitate its tearing.

Alternatively and for the same purpose, the cover sheet of the cardboard or of the corrugated cardboard may include breaking points or notches converging on the ribbon, at at least one end thereof, to facilitate its gripping.

To avoid detaching the ribbon from the panel to which it is attached, there is a risk of accidentally tearing the panel cover sheet, a cut line of the cover sheet or a half-cut line cardboard or corrugated cardboard will advantageously be arranged along at least one of the edges of the ribbon, to thus prevent the propagation of the tear in the cover sheet. The cardboard or corrugated packaging can of course be of any type whatsoever and, of course, the invention is not only applicable to packaging intended for receiving hospital waste, but also applies to packaging for products or articles of any type.

An embodiment of the invention will be described below in more detail, by way of example, with reference to the accompanying drawings. On these drawings Figure 1 is a perspective view of the cardboard or corrugated packaging equipped with its plastic bag, shown full and open Figure 2 is a similar view of the packaging, after closing the plastic bag. The packaging 1 can be of any shape.

In this case, it has the shape of a rectangular parallelepiped and it can be closed at its upper part by flaps such as 2 and 3, adjoining the side walls such as 4 and 5 respectively by fold lines perpendicular to the edges. A flexible plastic bag 6, housed inside the packaging 1, is intended to receive the products 7 or the packaged articles, for example hospital waste.

The bag 6 may or may not be integral with the packaging. According to the invention, a tear-off tape 8 is incorporated in a cover sheet of the cardboard or corrugated cardboard of a packaging part, here one of the flaps 3, to be detached from it by the user, in order to close bag 6 when it is full.MOOCs provide an affordable and flexible way to learn new skills, advance your career and deliver quality educational experiences at scale.

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11th international course on semi-rigid and flexible

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11th international course on semi-rigid and flexible

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